- Technical White Paper: Bone Densitometry, 2006 (Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, CRCPD)
- Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry For Bone Mineral Density And Body Composition Assessment – IAEA Human Health Series N.15
- Handbook on the Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, 2014 (IAEA)
- ACR Appropriateness Criteria: Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density, 2007 (ACR)
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Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures the amount of bone, or calcium, usually in the vertebral bodies or hip, but also in other bones. It may also be used to estimate the proportion of body fat. Doses are low, ranging from 10 to 300 µGy, depending on the equipment and procedure.
A dual-energy x-ray source is used to scan the patient producing images from which actual bone mineral content can be calculated and compared to normative data. Scan times are relatively long, typically minutes.
For the data to be clinically valuable it is essential that a standard phantom be scanned frequently to assure consistent measurements from the system. This also assures that the measured results are comparable from one scanner to another.