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Applications of nuclear medicine in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry involve the use of different radiopharmaceutical exhibiting uptake by central nervous system structures, and imaged using emission tomography (SPECT or PET). Most used tracers detect perfusion or metabolic abnormalities of the brain, while others interact with basal ganglia receptors and recently developed compounds bind to abnormal cerebral deposition of proteins such as amyloid. Cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders (especially Alzheimer’s disease) can be successfully evaluated through radionuclide imaging of the brain.